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Alternative Names Return to topHepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver
Definition Return to top
Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus in the liver brought on by an intestinal parasite.
Causes Return to top
Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, the same organism that causes amebiasis, an intestinal infection also called amebic dysentery. The organism is carried by the blood from the intestines to the liver.
The disease spreads through ingestion of amebic cysts in food or water contaminated with feces (sometimes due to use of human waste as fertilizer), and through person-to-person contact.
The infection occurs worldwide, but is most common in tropical areas where crowded living conditions and poor sanitation exist. Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India have significant health problems associated with this disease.
Risk factors for amebic liver abscess include:
Symptoms Return to top
There may or may not be symptoms of intestinal infection. Symptoms may include:
Exams and Tests Return to top
Tests that may be done include:
Treatment Return to top
An antibiotic medicine called metronidazole (Flagyl) is the usual treatment for liver abscess. A medication such as iodoquinol must also be taken to get rid of all the amebas in the intestine, to prevent the disease from coming back. This can usually be delayed until after the abscess has been treated.
In rare cases, the abscess may need to be drained to help relieve some of the abdominal pain.
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
Without treatment, the abscess may rupture and spread into other organs, leading to death. Persons who receive treatment have a very high chance of a complete cure or having only minor complications.
Possible Complications Return to top
The abscess may rupture into the abdominal cavity, the lining of the lungs, the lungs, or the sac around the heart. The infection can also spread to the brain.
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of this disease, especially if you've recently traveled to an area where the disease is known to occur.
Prevention Return to top
When traveling in tropical countries where poor sanitation exists, drink purified water and do not eat uncooked vegetables or unpeeled fruit.
References Return to top
Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Bacterial, parasitic, fungal, and granulomatous liver disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier. 2007: chap 155.Update Date: 5/30/2009 Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.