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Alternative Names Return to topDislocated jaw; Fractured jaw; Broken jaw
Definition Return to top
A broken jaw is a break in the jaw bone. A dislocated jaw means the lower part of the jaw has moved out of its normal position at one or both joints where the jaw bone connects to the skull (temporomandibular joints).
Considerations Return to top
A broken or dislocated jaw usually heals completely after treatment. However, the jaw may become dislocated again in the future.
Complications may include:
Causes Return to top
The most common cause of a broken or dislocated jaw is injury to the face. This may be due to:
Symptoms Return to top
Symptoms of a dislocated jaw include:
Symptoms of a fractured (broken) jaw include:
First Aid Return to top
A broken or dislocated jaw requires immediate medical attention because of the risk of breathing problems or significant bleeding.
Hold the jaw gently in place with your hands while traveling to the emergency room. A bandage may also be wrapped over the top of the head and under the jaw. However, such a bandage should be easily removable in case you need to vomit.
If breathing problems or heavy bleeding occurs, or if there is severe facial swelling, a tube may be placed into your airways to help you breathe.
If the jaw is dislocated, the health care provider may be able to place it back into the correct position using the thumbs. Numbing medications (anesthetics) may be needed to relax the strong jaw muscles.
The jaw may need to be stabilized. This usually involves bandaging the jaw to keep the mouth from opening widely. In some cases, surgery may be needed to do this, particularly if repeated jaw dislocations occur.
After dislocating your jaw, you should not open your mouth widely for at least 6 weeks. Support your jaw with one or both hands when yawning and sneezing.
Temporarily bandaging the jaw (around the top of the head) to prevent it from moving may help reduce pain.
The specific treatment for a fractured jaw depends on how badly the bone is broken. If you have a minor fracture, you may only need pain medicines and to follow a soft or liquid diet for a while.
Surgery is often needed for moderate to severe fractures. The jaw may be wired to the teeth of the opposite jaw to improve stability. Jaw wires are usually left in place for 6 - 8 weeks. Small rubber bands (elastics) are used to hold the teeth together. After a few weeks, some of the elastics are removed to allow motion and reduce joint stiffness.
If the jaw is wired, you can only drink liquids or eat very soft foods. Have blunt scissors readily available to cut the elastics in the event of vomiting or choking. If the wires must be cut, consult a health care provider promptly so they can be replaced.
DO NOT Return to top
Do NOT attempt to correct the position of the jaw.
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
A broken or dislocated jaw requires immediate medical attention. Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing or heavy bleeding.
Prevention Return to top
Safe practices in work, sports, and recreation, such as wearing a proper helmet when playing football, may prevent some accidental injuries to the face or jaw.Update Date: 5/15/2008 Updated by: Robert A. Cowles, MD, Assistant Professor of Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.