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Macular degeneration

Contents of this page:


Macular degeneration
Macular degeneration

Alternative Names    Return to top

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), AMD, Senile macular degeneration (SMD)

Definition    Return to top

Macular degeneration is an eye disorder that makes it difficult to see fine details. The condition affects the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.

Causes    Return to top

Damage to the macula can gradually destroy central vision, which is used to read and see objects clearly.

Two types of macular degeneration (AMD) exist:

Scientists aren’t sure what causes AMD. The disease is most common in people over 60, which is why it is often referred to as age-related macular degeneration.

Other risk factors are:

Symptoms    Return to top

At first you may not have symptoms. As the disease progresses, your central vision can be affected.

The most common symptom in dry AMD is blurred vision. As the disease progresses, you may need more light to read or perform everyday tasks. The blurred spot in the center of vision gradually gets larger and darker. In the later stages, you may not be able to recognize faces until people are close to you.

AMD typically does not affect side (peripheral) vision. This is very important, because it means you will never have complete vision loss from this disease.

The most common early symptom of wet macular degeneration is that straight lines appear distorted and wavy. You may also notice a small dark spot in the center of your vision that gradually gets larger.

Exams and Tests    Return to top

If you are over age 60 and you’ve had changes in vision, your eye care provider will do an examination. During the exam, the doctor will use drops to enlarge (dilate) your pupils, and a special magnifying lens to view your retina and optic nerve. The doctor will look for the yellow deposits called drusen that form in dry macular degeneration.

You may be asked to cover one eye and look at a pattern of lines called an Amsler grid. If the straight lines appear wavy, it may be a sign of AMD.

Other tests for macular degeneration may include:

Treatment    Return to top

No treatment exists for dry macular degeneration. However, a combination of antioxidants and zinc may slow the progression of the disease. Smokers should not use this treatment.

The recommended supplements contain:

Although there is no cure for wet AMD, treatments may include:

Low-vision aids (such as special lenses) and therapy can help improve your vision and quality of life.

Support Groups    Return to top

AMD Alliance International -- (877) AMD-7171 --

Outlook (Prognosis)    Return to top

Most people with mild dry macular degeneration will not have disabling central vision loss. However, there is no way to predict who will progress to a more severe form of the disease.

The wet form of macular degeneration often leads to significant vision loss.

This disorder results in the loss of central vision only -- macular degeneration cannot cause peripheral vision loss.

Possible Complications    Return to top

Loss of central vision may interfere with many daily activities, such as reading, working on the computer, or driving. You may need extra light or magnification to perform many of your normal activities.

When to Contact a Medical Professional    Return to top

If you have AMD, your health care provider may recommend that you check your vision every day on an Amsler grid. Call your provider if the lines appear wavy, or you notice any other changes in your vision.

Prevention    Return to top

Although there is no known way to prevent macular degeneration, lifestyle factors can reduce your risk of developing the condition:

See your eye care professional regularly for dilated eye exams.

References    Return to top

Gohel PS, Mandava N, Olson JL, Durairaj VD. Age-related macular degeneration: an update on treatment.Am J Med. 2008 Apr;121(4):279-81.

Martidis A, Tennant MTS. Age-Related Macular Degeneration. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, Augsburger JJ, et al, eds. Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2004:chap 125.

Update Date: 8/4/2008

Updated by: Manju Subramanian, MD, Assistant Professor in Ophthalmology, Vitreoretinal Disease and Surgery, Boston University Eye Associates, Boston, MA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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